Fibra óptica: ¿Qué es y cómo funciona? 5 Claves imprescindibles

Todas las empresas de telecomunicaciones españolas hablan sobre la fibra óptica, todos sus benefInicios y milagros, pero… ¿Se sabe realmente qué es y cómo funciona la fibra óptica? Te explicamos algunas de las claves para aprender en qué consiste.

1 ¿Qué es la fibra óptica?

Podríamos decir que es un cable más, pero no es así exactamente. Este no está formado por los materiales habituales, como pueden ser el cobre o el aluminio. Está formado por fibra de vidrio, materiales plásticos, o ambos, mucho más económicos que los anteriores. Estas fibras se situan en el centro del cable, y se encuentran rodeadas por un revestimiento de características especiales.

2 ¿Cómo funciona?

Su funcionamiento es muy diferente al habitual. No transmite electricidad, sino pulsos de luz. Estos pulsos, proporcionados mediante un diodo o laser, se transmiten por el interior de los finos hilos de vidrio, y se interpretan como datos. Esto se debe a que el ángulo de reflexión está por encima del ángulo límite de reflexión total, y que el revestimiento tiene un índice de refracción menor que el del núcleo, lo que evita que el haz de luz salga del hilo.

3 Velocidad

Una de las ventajas de este tipo de cableado es su velocidad.  Se consiguen velocidades mucho más elevadas, debido a que transmite luz en lugar de electricidad. Ha supuesto un gran avance en cuanto a nuevas tecnologías e Internet, ya que ha multiplicado por 10 la velocidad de este último.

4 Instalación

La instalación de la fibra es similar a la de los cables convencionales. La diferencia con los métodos convencionales radica en la conversión de luz a electricidad. Es por esto que se requieren convertidores optico-eléctricos, que encarecen ligeramente la instalación.

5 Diferencias con la banda ancha

  • Transmisión:  El cableado de fibra óptica, como ya hemos dicho antes, transmite luz y no electricidad.
  • Velocidad: Es mucho mayor que la de banda ancha, consiguiéndose multiplicar por 10 aproximadamente.
  • Cobertura: Hoy en día, todavía no hay cobertura de fibra óptica en toda España, y hay muchas zonas que debido a sus características particulares, tienen veradaderas deficiencias en cuanto a este tema.
  • Precio: Los operadores ofrecen precios algo superiores para la fibra óptica, pero cada vez se van asimilando más a los de banda ancha.

Cableado de Fibra Óptica

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