La importancia de invertir en TICs en las economías de las empresas

La nueva economía, cuyo símbolo es la economía de los Estados Unidos, se ha caracterizado en los últimos años por disfrutar de elevados ritmos de crecimiento, estabilidad de precios y pleno empleo. En el origen de esta situación están los incrementos de productividad conseguidos gracias a la generalización de las TICS. El desarrollo, extensión e intensificación del uso de las TICS habría generado cambios estructurales capaces de sostener un proceso de crecimiento no inflacionario y generador de empleo a largo plazo.

La caída de los precios de los productos TICS y una serie de años crecimiento económico sostenido, han incrementado las inversiones tanto en equipo como en software, y han hecho posible la expansión de estas tecnologías a los distintos entornos de la actividad económica. Los cambios desencadenados por las TICS han alterado el funcionamiento de los mercados, la organización de las empresas y generan nuevas oportunidades de crecimiento de la renta y la riqueza.

La nueva economía se está construyendo a partir del desarrollo de nuevas formas de producción y distribución, así como de la generación de nuevas demandas que las estructuras de mercado anteriores han sido incapaces de satisfacer. Por lo tanto Nueva Economía no tiene tanto que ver con la alta tecnología, sino con cómo las empresas utilizan y aprovechas las nuevas tecnologías.

El desarrollo de la nueva economía está impulsado por las importantes innovaciones tecnológicas y el proceso de liberalización de los mercados de productos y de factores. El crecimiento es el resultado del círculo virtuoso que se genera: las empresas innovadoras lanzan a los mercados nuevos productos de elevada elasticidad precio y renta; el aumento de la demanda de los mismos anima la producción e incrementa las rentas de los factores que la hacen posible; este flujo de rentas anima el sostenimiento del gasto en I+D de las empresas innovadoras e impulsa nuevas olas de innovación que sostienen el proceso. Como parte fundamental del avance técnico y la innovación que impulsa este proceso se encuentran los esfuerzos realizados por los productores de TICS.

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La vitalidad de la economía digital tiene su base en las industrias TIC, entendiendo por tales aquel conjunto de empresas que proporcionan bienes y servicios que permiten el funcionamiento de los negocios basados en la informática, Internet y el comercio electrónico. Es el entramado empresarial el que posibilita la conectividad del sistema. Es necesario, por tanto analizar la aportación de bienes y servicios que realiza el sector de las TICS, así como los recursos productivos de que dispone para desarrollar su actividad.

Uno de los rasgos económicos más interesantes de internet es que su impacto va más allá de las industrias de alta tecnología, haciéndose sentir en todos los sectores industriales y de servicios. Este impacto se traduce en reducciones de costes y aumentos de productividad que tienen su origen en:

 a) La posibilidad de conseguir factores de producción más baratos, gracias al acceso a un número mayor de proveedores, es decir, a una mayor competitividad.

 b) La reducción de los stocks que permite la generalización de las técnicas de abastecimiento y distribución just in time.

c) La disminución de los costes de transacción, al simplificarse la relación entre productor y cliente; y la reducción de los costes de acceso al mercado, ya que es más barato crear un sitio en Internet que recurrir a las formas tradicionales.

d) La reducción del tiempo de llegada de los productos al mercado, gracias a una mayor adecuación de la producción a los pedidos y a una mayor eficacia en la distribución.

e) La ampliación del mercado, gracias a la superación de las barreras de espacio y tiempo.


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